“No great discovery was ever made without a bold guess.” --Isaac Newton
The Unified Theory of Biology explains the origin and nature of life. The theory implies the following principles:
Life began when self-replicating chemical interactions evolved spontaneously deep beneath the earth's surface, where the stable, hot environment provided abundant energetic chemicals. These chemical interactions evolved enclosing walls and DNA/RNA information systems to become the first cells.
Life evolved by developing intracellular and extracellular stress mechanisms that facilitate cellular survival in specific environments. No intracellular stress mechanism has yet been identified. The mammalian stress mechanism is the first extracellular mechanism to be identified. Its description remains crude, but it confers a powerful “unified theory of biology” that explains the origin and nature of life, including embryology, evolution, ethology, intelligence, anatomy, and taxonomy.
Intracellular stress mechanisms maintain cell walls and internal cell structures.
All cells can be categorized as either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Only eukaryotic cells are capable of multicellular existence.
Extracellular stress mechanisms maintain and repair multicellular structures and regulate physiology provide an “internal milieu” that facilitates the survival and function of their eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells can sub-specialize to form tissues and organs, but they must do so within the constraints of the “internal milieu.”
Anatomy must be compatible with the extracellular stress mechanism, so that specific stress mechanisms characterize each class of animals and plants. For example, exercise tolerance is optimized in both poikilothermic reptiles and euthermic mammals at the temperature of 100 degrees Fahrenheit, which is the temperaure of lipoprotein liquefaction. Reptiles are therefore covered with dark plates that efficiently absorb heat to elevate their internal temperature to 100 degrees fahrenheit. Mammals elevate their metabolism to maintain their internal temperature at 100 degrees Fahrenheit, so they are covered with fur to retain heat and minimize food requirements.
The sex mechanism continually captures fresh mutations, culls lethal mutations, and conserves beneficial mutations.
A unique genome accompanies each stress mechanism. The sex mechanism continuously adds characteristics compatible with the stress mechanism, so that life grows increasingly complex over time, as observed by Lamarck.
Speciation proceeds via environmental selection of useful combinations of available genome characteristics to refine environmental adaptation as observed by Darwin. This explains why the vast majority of species in the fossil record are extinct, but stress mechanisms, once evolved, tend to endure. Thus extinction, like death, is an essential element of evolution.
Genetic drift occurs when breeding populations become isolated from one another, whereupon speciation eventually renders them incapable of mating successfully. Fresh mutations are no longer shared, and the respective genomes drift apart. Thus chimpanzees and humans share the same mammalian stress mechanism, but their genomes are slightly different because over millions of years they have collected different mutations, and they have evolved anatomical and behavioral characteristics that render them incapable of successful mating.
The theory of biology suggests that life has evolved via the following sequence:
1. Unicellular life evolved numerous metabolic pathways and intracellular stress mechanisms to maintain their cell walls and internal structures, and to adapt to various subterranean environments.
2. Eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells. Current theory holds that a “parent” cell engulfed previously free-living cells that became “organelles” with specific functions. The ability to generate ATP energy internally via mitochondria enabled the evolution of complex multicellular structures.
3. The unceasing metabolic activity of the vast subterranean microbial mass produces water that formed and replenishes the oceans, gases that formed and replenish the atmosphere, and oil that continuously oozes to the earth’s surface. The oceans and atmosphere exist in an equilibrium of gravity, entropy, and microbial replenishment.
4. Subterranean prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells adapted to the cold ocean environment in the “rift zones” that occur at the borders of tectonic plates, and subsequently adapted to the exposed terrestrial environment.
5. Prokaryotic cyanobacteria utilized sunlight to add oxygen to the earth’s oceans and atmosphere.
6. Eukaryotic cells evolved chloroplasts that enabled the evolution of complex multicellular plants that thrive in the presence of sunlight.
7. Eukaryotic cells thriving in the rift zones evolved animal extracellular stress mechanisms. These evolved into hundreds of species including worms, crabs, shrimp, fish and mussels that remain dependent on the nutritious volcanic chemicals and heat in the rift zone environment.
8. The genomes associated with rift zone stress mechanisms gradually accumulated compatible characteristics via the mechanism of sex.
9. Rift zone animals evolved a stress mechanism that enabled survival in the open ocean, causing the "Cambrian Explosion." Whether this was an intracellular or an extracellular mechanism or a combination of both remains unclear. For example, it may have resulted from the evolution of the Krebs cycle after the cyanobacteria elevated ocean oxygen levels.
10. Multicellular animals evolved vertebrate and invertebrate stress mechanisms that enabled amphibious and then terrestrial existence.